Jan. 7, *1941. E. CANNON y 2,227,629.
PRESSURE CONTROL'VALVE AND THE LIKE Filed Qe. 14, 1957 Y 2 sheets-sheet 1 ATTO RN EYS Jan. 7, 1941. E. CANNON PRESSURE COTROL VALVE AND THE LIKE 2 sheets-sheet `2 Filed Dec. 14, 1957 INVENTOR @fn/twv,
Patented Jan. 7, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE AND THE LIKE Earl Cannon, Rockville Centre, N. Y., assgnor Ito E. W. Bliss Company, Brooklyn, N. Y., a corporation oi Delaware 'Ihis invention relates to pressure control valves, and more particularly to a type of valve adapted to control the passage of nuid through a pipe line in which it is connected, and hence to 5 -control fluid pressure in said line at the intake side of the Valve.
In various types of hydraulically-operated machinery such, for example, as hydraulic presses, it is desirable to control the passage of lo fluid through a conduit so that at times fluid passes therethrough substantially unimpeded, land at other times the passage of fluid therethrough is restrained so that pressure may be built up in one portion of the conduit and in any l5 passages or chambers directly connected thereto.
Such pressure control may, for example, be used in hydraulic presses to either directly Vor indirectly retard the advance of the ram of the press. Although the present invention -is particularly 20 useful in the fluid circulating systems of certain types of hydraulic presses, it would be useful also in various other types of hydraulically-controlled or operated machines.
An important object of the present invention is the provision of an improved pressure-control valve wherein the iiuid pressure at the intake side of the valve is employed to exert hydraulic pressure within-the valve, tending to increase its restraint upon the passage of fluid therethrough.
Other objects of the invention will beperceived from the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a central vertical section of a variable pressure-control valve according to the present invention, the section being taken substantially Yon the lines 2-2 of Figs. 4 and v5.
Figure 2 is a vertical section on the lines 3-3 of Figs. 1, 3 and 4.
40 Figure 3 is a horizontal section, the upper portion being taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1, and the lower portion being taken on the line 4a-4a of Fig. 1. f
Figure 4 is a top plan view of the variable pressure-control valve illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3.
Referring to the drawings, a pressure-control valve according to the present invention, may comprise a suitable valve casing which houses the working parts of the valve. Although the 50v valve is adapted to pass iiuid in opposite directions therethrough, nevertheless the control is accomplished only upon fluid passing in one direction through the valve. Therefore, reference in this speciication to an intake port or receiving 55 passage or a discharge passage or port, relates only to the variably controllable vpassage of iluid through the valve.
In so far as the valve permits substantially uncontrolled ow of iluid through the valve in one direction, uid may enter the valve through a 5 port |02 in the valve casing, (referring to Fig. 1) thence downwardly through a passage |03, thence upwardly past a check valve |04 into a central chamber |05. The fluid may then pass from the latter chamber through a port |06 (in- 10 dicated in broken lines in Fig. 1), but more clearly shown in Fig. 3, and into pipe line 64a.- The check valve |04 is only lightly loaded bya compression coil-spring |01 seated between the said check valve |04 and another check valve |08 15 which is suitably retained in place -and functions in a manner hereinafter explained.
It will be understood that the valve is adapted for connection in a single pipe line in which, on occasions, fluid may pass in either direction. As just described, the passage of fluid is substantially uncontrolled in the sense that the valve is not adapted to vary the restraint upon the passage of fluid therethrough. However, when iluid is passed in the opposite directionl through the valve, that is to say, into the valve through port I 06 and out of the valve through port |02, variations in the restraint upon the passage of fluid may be effected. The following description refers particularly to passage of fluid through the valve in the last-mentioned direction unless otherwise specifically indicated. Fluid, upon' entering the port |06, passes into the central chamber |05, thence upwardly past-check valve |00 into a discharge passage |09, which connects with the port |02 through which the iiuid passes in leaving the valve. It will be seen that during passage of the fluid through the valve in the manner just described, the check valve |04 is held closed by the compression coil-spring |01. 40
The check valve .I 08 is loaded by a loading coilspring ||0; the upper end of which seats upon a spring cap ||0a which bears against .the inner end of a tensioning bolt.||0b threaded through a valve head the latter being suitably bolted or otherwise secured to the valve casing. 'The tensioning bolt ||0b may be turned in or out to adjust the tension of the spring H0, and a lock nut |I0e serves to lock the said tensioning bolt after a desired adjustment of the tension of the spring ||0 has been obtained. The lower end of the spring ||0 seats within a hallowed-out piston. H2 which coacts with a plunger ||3 to transmit the tension of the spring |10 to the check valve |08. The piston ||2 is accurately fitted for hy- '55 draulic reciprocation within a bore ||4 in the upper part of the valve casing IOI, and the plunger I I3 extends through a bushing IIS which may be in the form of a stuffing box or otherwise may be adapted to prevent any substantial passage of fluid around said plunger.
The structure of the valve, as thus far described, provides for the passage of fluid through the valve under relatively light restraintas imposed by the check valve |08 loaded only by the spring ||0. Means are provided, however, whereby the spring loading of the check valve |08 may be augmented through the medium of pressure from the central chamber |05, provision being made for the imposition of such pressure upon the plunger I I3 and through the latter upon the top of the check valve |08.
The area within the bore II4 above the piston I I2 (hereinafter referred to as positive bias chamber |I6) is at all times in fluid communication with the area within the bore III below the said piston (hereinafter referred to as negative bias chamber I Il) through a vertical passage |I8, and lateral passages |I0 and |20 in the valve casing. Provision is made for selectively connecting the vertical passage |88 and the connected of the piston bias chambers IIS and `||`l either with the exhaust passage |09 above the check valve |00 or with the central chamber |05 below said check valve for the purpose of subjecting the plunger ||3 and the check valve |08 to either the relatively low fluid pressure present in said passage, or to the relatively high fluid pressure present in the said central chamber.
In a structure as illustrated in Fig. l, it-is` probable that fluid would be present between the coacting surfaces of the piston I I2 and the plunger II3, with the result that whatever fluid pressure may be present in the bias chambers I I6 and I I'I,
would act equally upon the equal topand bottom surfaces of the piston ||2, and also, would act downwardly upon the upper end of the plunger ||3 and opposethe hydraulic f orce acting upon the under side of the valve |0d. Although the hydraulic forces acting upon the top and bottom I|2 are substantially balanced, nevertheless said piston is held in contact with the plunger I I3 by the spring I|0, and hence the force ofsaid spring is transmitted to the check valve |08. Thus the force of the spring ||0 and the hydraulic forces acting upon the exhaust check valve |08 through the plunger II3, operate as a combined force tending to hold the check valve |08 seated against the pressure of fluid in the central chamber |05.
It should be apparent that the piston I|2 and the plunger ||3 may be integral, under which arrangement the downward hydraulic force transmitted to the exhaust check valve |08 through the plunger I I3 would be the same as if the piston and vplunger were formed separately. If said parts were integrally formed, the hydraulic force acting downwardly upon the valve |08 would'be the hydraulic force acting upon the top of the piston ||2, minus the hydraulic force acting upon. the bottom thereof, and as the hyl draulic force acting on the bottom of the piston would be less to the extent of the pressure computed with reference to the cross-sectional area of the plunger H3, it follows that thetotal hydraulic force, derived from bias chambers IIS and II'I for augmenting the force of the spring ||0 would be the hydraulic pressure within said chambers computed. with reference to the cross-sectional area of said plunger II3, precisely the same as in the case where the pistfm and plunger are separately formed.
When the bias chambers IIS and III are connected to the exhaust passage |00 they derive little or no effective fluid pressure therefrom, and
the load tending to hold the check valve |08 closed is derived chiefly from the loading coilspring IIO, hence only a relatively light back pressure is present in the central chamber |05. It is understood, of course, that the tension of the loading coil-spring ||0 is properly adjusted to impose the desired relatively light restraint upon the passage of iiuid through the valve.
When the bias chambers II6 and IIl, however, are connected to the central chamber |05, the relatively high pressure which is present in said chamber, as compared to the pressure present in discharge passage |09, is transmitted to the said bias chambers and hence the plunger ||3 derives a net force from such high pressure which substantially augments the force ofthe loading coil-spring ||0 and thus imposes an additional load upon the check valve |08. This additional load has the effect of imposing an inl creased restraint upon the passage of fluid through the valve and of accumulating an increased back pressure in the central chamber I 05.
Means are provided for shifting the connection of the passage ||8 and the bias chambers II@ and |II from the exhaust passage |09 to the central chamber |05, and 'vilce versa, for the purpose of varying the restraint to the passage of fluid through the valve and also for varying the back pressure in the central chamber |05 and in any conduits or chambers in other mechanisms connected thereto. To this end a piston valve I2I is provided, the bodyt'hereof preferably being formed integrally withi the casing |0I. 'This piston valve comprises a double-headed piston |22 tted accurately within a bore |23 toward the center of which are provided three annular chambers, one of said chambers, numbered |20, being preferably located centrally within said bore in fluid communication with the vertical passage IIB, as best seen in Fig. 2. Another of said annular chambers, numbered |25, is suitably spaced from the chamber I 24 toward one side thereof and is in fluid communication with the exhaust passage |09 through a lateral passage |20, and the third of said annular chambers, numbered |21, is in fluidcommunication with the central chamber |05 through a lateral passage |28, as best seen in Fig. 3.
The piston |22 has heads |22a and |22b at opposite ends thereof and a neck I22c intermediate said heads. When said piston is inthe extreme left position, as shown in Fig. 2, the area around the neck |22c affords fluid communication between the annular chambers |24 and |25, and the piston head |22b covers the annular chamber |21?. 30
In the position just referred to' only the relatively low pressure in the exhaust passage |09 is communicated to the bias chambers I I0 and I I1, and little or no additional load 1s imposed thereby upon the valve |08. When the piston |22 is moved to an extreme right position, the area around the neck |2Zc affords fluid communication between the annular chambers |24 and I2I, and the piston head I22a covers the annular chamber I2|. In thisposition the relatively high pressure in the central chamber |05 is communicated to the bias chambers IIS and III, and suillcient additional bias may thereby be imposed upon the check valve |08 to increase the restraint upon fluid passing through the valve and to increase the pressure in the central chamber and in any conduits or chambers of connected mechanisms.
A coil-spring |29 coacts with one end of the piston |22 and with a cap |30 closing one end of the bore |23, whereby to urge the said piston toward its extreme left position, as shown in Fig. 2, while said piston is moved to its extreme right position by an electric solenoid 6B in a manner well under-l stood in the art. A plunger I3! of the said solenoid may be pivotally connected by a link |32 to one end of a bell-crank lever |33, fulcrumed at |36 upon a bracket |35 which may be suitably mounted upon the casing |0|. The other end of the bell-crank |33 may be pivotally connected through a link H30 to the outer end of extension |l3l of the piston |22, said extension passing through a cap |38 and a suitable stulng boxl |39. Thus, when the solenoid 56 is electrically energized, the piston |22 moves to its extreme right ever, 'not being shown as such showing is not necessary to an understanding of the invention. Likewise, it will be understood that a suitable electric switch or circuit breaker may be employed in the electric circuit supplying such energy, and that in any machinery in which the present valve is employed, such a switch may be operated either manually or automatically, at any desired stage in a cycle of operation whereby to operate the valve either to impose a relatively light restraint upon the passage. of fluid therethrough, and consequently to establish only a relativelylight back pressure at the intake side of the valve or to offer substantial restraint to the passage to fluid therethrough and hence to establish a substantial back pressure at the intake side of the valve.
Although, as hereinbefore stated, the present invention may be employed in various types of hydraulic machinery, a fuller understanding of the invention may be obtained by considering its operation in connection with a hydraulic press. The present invention may be advantageously employed in a hydraulic press structure as disclosed in United States l Letters Patent No. 2,152,837, issued under date of April 4, 1939. The said patent discloses a. hydraulic press having a preflll valve which is normally open during the greater part of the advance stroke of the press whereby to permit 'fluid to be drawn rapidlyinto the ram chamber of the press in substantial volume. The ram of the press illustrated in said patent is caused to advance rapidly during a substantially initial portion of its advance stroke by -means of iiuid injected under pressure through a centrally located supply tube into a relatively small hydraulic chamber located within the ram itself. During thisrapid advance portion of the stroke, fluid is being discharged from return or push-back chambers, and the prell valve meanwhile remains open. One of the characteristics of the prell valve disclosed in said patent is that when the ram of the press is substantially impeded during its advance stroke, the pressure of the fluid being pumped into the press increases substantially and automatically causes the preytially increasing the back pressure in the ram rell valve to close, after which iluid under pressure may continue to pass into the press, but instead of going only into the small hydraulic chamber employed in the rapid initial advance of the ram, it passes into the mainram chamber and hence the continued advance of the ram proceeds at much reduced speed and greater hydraulic `force may be applied to the ram because of the larger areas of the two chambers within which the high pressure fluid continues to operate. l
It will be obvious that in such a press the prefill valve may be caused to close, and hence the speed of the advance of the ram may be mate- -rially reduced, either by the resistance which the ram and the die carri-ed thereby may encounter upon the die engaging the material being Worked, or by the expedient of establishing pressure in the ram return chamber shortly before engagement of the die with the material. Where it is desired to avoid impact of the die with the material being worked, the latter expedient naturally would be preferred.
In order to avoid such impact in the operation of such a hydraulic press structure, avalve according to the present invention may be connected in the conduit employed to effect discharge of the ram return or push-back chamber, with the intake side of the valve nearest to the said chamber. With the valve so connected, the solenoid 66 and its controlling electric connections may be so arranged that Aduring the rapid advance portion of the stroke of the press the said solenoid is not energized and hence the piston |22 would be disposed as shown in Fig. 2, in which position the bias chambers ||6 and ||1 are connected through the lateral passage |26 to the exhaust passage |09 in which the fluid, being on the discharge sideof the check valve |08, is at relatively low pressure; hence, during the rapid advance portion of the stroke of the ram the iuid being exhausted from the ram return chamber would suffer only slight impediment to its passage through the valve.
Let us assume, however, that an electric sv'itch or circuit breaker, disposed in the electric circuit controlling the solenoid 66, is so arranged on or adjacent to the slide of the press that it is engaged and closed by a suitable abutment carried by said slide just before the die engages the material being worked. Immediately upon the closing of such switch or circuit breakerthe solenoid iil` becomes energized and immediately shifts the piston |22 toward the right as viewed in Fig. 2, thus connecting the bias chambers ||6 and of the valve with the central chamber |05 through lateral passage |28 (see also Figs. 1 and 3).
Thereupon the bias chambers ||6 and ||1 immeturn or push-back chamber of the press. As a result of this increased back pressure the preiill valve of the press immediately closes, whereupon the advance of the ram continues at a much reduced speed and increased hydraulic force may be applied to theram of the press to complete the work of the advance stroke.
The invention is not intended to be limited to the specific form which has been described and disclosed herein and in the accompanying draw- 75 ings for the purposes of illustration, but should `be regarded as including modiilcations and variations thereof within the'sccpe of the appended claim.
y I claim:
A variable pressure control valve or the like comprising ya receiving passage, a discharge passage, a port between said passages permitting movement of fluid from the former to the latter passage, a check valve adapted to close said port, a spring arranged to impose a load upon said check valve urging the latter closed against pressure in said receiving passage, hydraulic means, augmenting said spring, and also adapted to impose a load upon said check valve, and a controlling mechanism, adapted to connect or disconneet the said hydraulic means relatively to the said receiving passage, whereby respectively to render said check valve substantially responsive 2,2Z7,6:`wl
e either to both the said spring and hydraulic means or to the said spring alone, the said hydraulic means comprising a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to transmit force to said check valve, a hydraulic positive bias chamber, adapted to co-act with the piston to impose an inwardly-acting load thereupon, a. hydraulic negative bias chamber, adapted to cof-act with the piston to impose an outwardly-acting load thereupon, partly oisetting the said inwardlyacting load, and connecting passages affording hydraulic communication between both said bias chambers and the receiving passage, the said controlling mechanism controlling the communication of pressure through said connecting passages to establish a common pressure in both said bias chambers and in the receiving passage.