Dec. 17, 1940. D.'B. DEWEY 2,225,209
MOTOR COOLING CONTROL Filed Nov. 18, 1938 2 Sheet s-Sheet 1' I 4? 25 I v V I 29 1 32 Z! 26 I i a 564/444,? fi Wf) INVENTOR.
D. .B. DEWEY Dec. 17,1940.
MOTOR COOLING CONTROL 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 18, 1938 INVENTOR.
Patented Dec. 17, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Moron coomve cosmon- David Brainard Dewey, Pasadena, cam. Application November 18, 1938, Serial No. 221,203.
* 3 Claims.' (Cl. 170- 163) 7 This invention pertains to improvements in motor controls, particular reference being made to the control of internal combustion engines, Diesel and semi-Diesel motors, and other engines or" motors of a type requiring the provision of cooling means, whereby said motors or engines are maintained within an eflective operating temperature range in an automatic manner.
The motors or engines used in trucks. tractors,
in power shovels, passenger bu'sses, power plants and industrial unitssuch as derricks, etc., are ordinarily provided with a liquid cooling system comprising a radiator and'a pump for regulating the cooling liquid around the motor and then through the radiator. Fans are provided, such fans being driven by the motor or engine,-for
- passing cooling air through. the radiator or around thecylinders for the purp e of reducing the temperature ,thereof, such means being particularly'designed' to prevent the motor from overheating, During winter months, such cooling system will ordinarily cool the motor to below v a desired eii'ective working range and additional devices, such as adjustable louvres, are ordinarily positioned around the radiator for the purpose of preventing cooling air from being suckedior blown through the radiator when the air temperature is so low that an inordinately low temperature exists in the coolingliquid. It is tube noted, however, that the fans are constantly driven as long as the motor is being operated. On large trucks it has been foimd that a very appreciable amount of power is consumed in driving the fan. A-truck engine of 100 horse-v a5 P wer rating may, at top engine speed, expend 20' horsepower in driving the fan.
The present invention permits the maintenance of an elective operating temperature in the motor without the necessity of employing 40 additional louvres, shutters, or the like, and
furthermore reduces the amount of power necessarytodriveafan.
Generally stated. the present invention is directed toward a method whereby a motor is maintained withinian elective operating temperature range by varying the pitch of the fan blades in accordance with the temperature of the motor or of the motor cooling liquid. 'lhe invention also toga combination of elements whereby 50 the may be carried out most eflectively. It is an object of the present invention, therefore, to provide a method of maintaining a motor or engine within an elective operating tempera- 4 ture range in an automatic manner.
A further object is to provide, in-combination with a motor provided with a'cooling system including a radiator, fan means provided with angularly adjustable blades. 2
An object of 'thepresent invention is to provide the combination of a fan provided with an- 5 gularly adjustable blades and means controlled and actuated by temperature variations in a radiator, lubricating oil stream, cooling liquid or motor temperature, for adjustably positioning said blades. 10
A still further object of the presentinvention is to disclose and provide particular means and combinations of elements whereby the devices of he invention may be most effectively carried out.
and other objects of the invention, reference will be had to the appended drawings in which certain "illustrative forms are shown, it being understood that various changes and modifications can bemade from the specific forms illustrated with- 20 out departing from the general teachings of the invention. In such drawings:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic sideelevation or a motor providedwith a cooling system and the means of thisinvention. Y
"Fig. 2 is a side view. partly in section, through one form of device.
Fig. 3 is a front view and transverse section taken along the plane III-11! of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a section through a fan blade.
Fig. 5 represents a modified form of device. .As shown in Fig. 1, a motor M may-be provided with a cooling fluid system including a radiator R, a hose conduit .l connecting the upper portion of the water p w of the motorwlth the top of'the radiator and a conduit 2 connecting the lower portion of the radiator with the lower portion of the motor jacket. 7 This lower conduit 2 may be provided with a driven pump 3 which. maintains circiflatlonof the cooling fluid 40 from the radiator into the motor. A cooling fan is indicated generally at L The fan 4 as well as the pump I is ordinarily driven by the motor.-
'Whenaunit of thetypeshowninFig. l is installed in a vehicle or in any power plant, the
fan I either sucks .or blows air through the radiator R, the speed of the fan I varying withthe speed of the motor. air being thus passed through the radiator R for the purpou of cooling the liquid which is being circulated therethrough. The
In order'to facilitate understanding of these 152 the P p e of driving the fan and this expenditure of energy takes place whether whollynecessary or not. For example, during winter months I or when a truckis going down along grade, it is 5 not to pass large quantities of air through the radiator since the motor is relatively cool. The pitch of the ian ,bladesis set, however, to deliver a quantity oi air through the radiator suflicient to cool the liquid therein under maximum load conditions as. for example, where the truck is being operated up longgrades in the quantities otpower are thus wasted. Moreover. when the motor or truck is operating under 121-- vorable or cool conditions, the fan capacity is materially inexcess of that desired and the cooling system drops in temperature to below atemt ieragure at which the motor operates most eilec- In accordance with the present invention, tem- 25 perature sensitive means, generally indicated at lareconnectedasbymeansofalineltothe conduit l and by a line I to the'i'nlet side of the pump 3 so that a portion of the cooling fluid passes through conduit I into the temperature responsive device 5 and then through line I'and pump I back into the motor. The temperature responsive device I is operably associated with the fan I and the fan l is, in accordance with this invention. so constructed that the pitch or angle of the fan blades is automatically varied or adiusted in accordance with the temperature of the cooling liquid. such adjustment being automatically madeby the device I.
As shown in Fig. 2, the tan assembly may com- 40 prise a hollow stationary stud shaft II which is firmly held as bymeans of a bracket (not shown) encircling the eccentric adjustment rings II and ii. The bracket is attached to some stationary support and the adjustmentrings ii and it per- 45mit the shaft I! to bepmperly Positioned with respect to driving pulleys or sheaves.
as, for example, where the bores "and I8 oi .sueh collar 2| and surrounding a centering pin. 3l carriedby the cover'plate ll; .r
Each of the radiallyextending-bosses it is provided with a radial bore adapted to receive 10 aianbladestumsuchasthestudfl. Inthe -gitudin'allyoraxially. Thepinsllmaytravel .mnvctnentwillcauseacorresponding axialmovement or collar ll, movement or such collar llcausingapartialrotatiouutthei'anlilade embodiment illustrated, the radial bore of the boss is steppedthe inner bore It being oi larger diameter than the outer bore TI. The inner bore It may be provided with a bearing surrounding the inner end of the Ian blade stud 35.
Such inner end'oi the fan blade stud 38 may carry a cap 38 provided with a pin ll which is eccentrically positioned with respect to the axis of the fan blade stud 35. The cap 38 may be pinned onto the end of the stud. An additional bearing, indicated at H, may surround the outer end or the stud II and be retained in place as by means of a cap 42 threadedly attached to the boss II. Each oi the tan blade studs 35 carries a tan blade It which is firmly retained between the bifurcated end portions 43 and 44 of thestud ii. The fan blade ll may be made from a single piece oi metal or from a plurality of members. In the preferred construction the l or en- "tering edge of the Ian blade is forwardly at or inclined whereas the major portion or the blade is straight. The curved or inclinedportion oi the blade may comprise from about one-fourth to one-third oi. the total width of the blade. The axial center oi the stud. 33 preferably extends along the blade at a point corresponding to about one-third of the total width of the blade trom the trailing .edge thereof. In other words, the tan 4 blade ll. is so held between thebifurcated por-i tions II and N that approximately two-thirds of the tan blade width is in advance of an extension within. the circumferential groove il'iormed in thecollarll. Thepitchorinclinationotthaian bladea' llcan be varied at anytime byalial movementoitheactuatingpinlhwhichaxial finds flwithinthebcaaeajl of the rotatinghub ileans are provided-tor automatically in accordanee withthetemperature otthemotor or cooiimsystem a-ociated therewith. Bush means-may, its-example, comprise a Bylphonc! an containing-a suitabla readily espmdihle fluid poaitionedwithina housing ll sur-' roimdedhyaiacketllsaichiacketis conduits orlines and 7 the hub 13, i. e., they will not be pitched. As a of the'actuating pin 25.
I so as to permit cooling liquid to ass through the passageways of the jacket'surrounding the housing 5|. .The housing 5| is provided with a air resistancexand will overcome the pressure of removable cover53. A plunger 54 provided with a bearing plate 55 resting on top of the Sylphon 50 extends from the housing 5|, the end of the plunger 54 being provided with a yoke pivotally connected to a lever 55, said lever being also pivotally connected as at 51' to a bracket 58. -The end" of the lever 56 rests against the end plate 26 The arrangement specifically described operates in the following manner:
In the event the motor is-cold (below eflective operating temperature) the Sylphon 50 is in contracted position and the major portion of the tan blades d5 lie in a plane transverse to the axis of matter of fact, the slight forward inclination of radiator shutters, etc.
the leading edge of. the fan blades will have a tendencyto blow some airthrough the radiator and in the event the radiator is positioned in the forward part of a vehicle immediately in front-of a motor, some air will be gently blown from around the motor toward the radiator, thereby retarding the passage of cold outside air through the radiator. The ability oithe fan blades to actually blow air from the motor through the radiator (in "a direction opposed to the fiow of air under normal conditions) permits the motor maintains the motor at' eflicient temperatures during cold weather without the use of auxiliary Furthermore, it will be noticed that this reversal in flow is obtained by changes in the pitch of the blade'45 entirely to onesideof a transverse rotational plane which would be established by the main 'fiat portion of a 'the blade 45. Under such conditions, very little power isspent in driving the hub i3 and the Ian blade since very little resistance is encountered. It, for example, the truck is coasting down a long grade or driving along a level road when the-outside are low, the power generated by the motor is'niost effectively utilized for propulsion and not spent in uselessly' rotating a steeply-pitched Ian.
In the event, however, the truck on which the device oi this invention is installed is climbing a steep gradewhichrequires the motor to be oper'-. ated at high' speed while the vehicle is in low gear, the motor temperature will quickly rise and a as the liquid becomes hot, the Sylphon 50 will be caused to expand, exertpressure on varies the pitch of theian' blades 45. As the pitch of. the fan blades 45 increases, larger quanthe cooling liquid is shown by-passed through the temperature responsive device 5 from the radiator inlet conduit to the circulating pump inlet, the cooling fluid which is passed through the plunger and move the lever 56 so as to axially adjust theactuating pin 25 whichin turn titles of cooling either'blown'or. sucked through the radiator, thereby nbre effectively cooling the andliquid'and tendmg to maintain the memwithin an effective operating temperature range.
In a slightly modified form of operation (particularly whenjan t e. are used), thesylphon exerts an expansive force even at low temperatures say 130 F. so'that when the motor is idling (a condition under whichrapcldrlseintemperatureisordinarllyob. served),the expansiveiorce oi the Sylphon will.
place the fan blades at an appreciable pitch angle and thegeby prevent undue ri e in temperature. Ifthe motor (still at 130 F.) isrun at high speed, the fan blades williiatten out due positioned between a motor and a radiator, to be understood that various modifications .and
the jacket 01 the device may be routed or bypassed in other ways. 1
In the modified form of device a rotatable actuating shaft 10 extends throughthe shaft on 'which the hub I3 is mounted, the'inner end of such shaft carrying a pitch regulator H comprising a cylinder with a diametrically extending groove on its face. The outer end of the actuating shaft is connected to a presser plate 13 by means of a ball thrust bearing I4. The presser plate is indirect contact with a Sylphon bellows 15 positioned within the housing 5| which is jacketed and supplied with a constant streamof cooling liquid fromthe cooling system of the motor. a
' In this modified construction it is to be noted 1 that the temperature responsive device is-direct; ly connected .to the actuating shaft or pin. The
modification first described is of advantage in.
some instances in that the overall length of the fan assembly and temperature sensitive controlling device is-not as great as that or the modifled form of device.
Instead of passingcooling liquid through the Sylphon or other thermostathousing, lubricating oil from the crankcase'or well can be passed which then actuates the fan .blades.. This 1 in heat exchange relationship to the thermostat adaptation is of use in large power units and on by changes in motor block temperatures rectlyp in all instances it is to be noted that the method of operation comprises varying the pitch of "fan blades, which pass air through a cooling fluid radiatoror around a motor, in accordance with the temperature 01' the motor or its cool- Although in Fig. i the fanassembly is 1 is changes from this illustrative: arrangement can be made. Forexample, incertain types of vehicles the motor is positioned at a considerable distance from the radiator. In other instances the radiator is not only positioned at an appreciable distance trom the motor but in addition the fan blades are inclined tor the purp ,of sucking air throughthe radiato in other inshown 'the radiatormaybeat the rear oiavehicle and not at the trout. Although in many installations as stances the inclination and direction or rotation, of the ian blades maybe such as to blow airthrough the radiator. If desired. the thermostat j can be positioned directly within the Ian hub. These and other changes and modiflcations willoccur to those skilled in the art, who
inventlontoa qumstances. v
adapt the'general teachings of this varietyoiumdtuatiohsandcira hollow huh rotatable thereon, an actuating pin slidabl'e in the stud ahatt and. exteudinzinto the hub, a collar slldably mounted within said hub and rotatablethereyitmaaid collar being provided with an annular outer groove, a bearin: eonnectinz said collar and actuating pin,
radially fan blade' studs rotatably joumuled in the hub, a cap member provided the pitchoisaidian hl8d08.- I
2; m a device otthe character'deacribed. the combination of: a atud shaft, a rotatable hollow. hub on said m, aaidhub beingprovided with apluralityoiradiallyextendingbosaenaradiallyextendim atep'ped'borein eachotsaidbouee,"
stud positioned therein, an eecentrically poeitioned pin carried by the inner end of each stud.
a collar member moveble axially 0! said shaft and extending into said hub and provided with a unmade-mm journaled lvextendin: ha'oineaehd nidin