Method of binding sheet material

Abstract

Claims

Dec. 26, 1939. E. A. TRUSSELL 2,185,004 METHOD OF BINDIENG SHEET MATERIAL 7 Original Filed Aug. 25, 19.34 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fg. J. n 2. fin l/ 4. m FT O Q Q 0 O INVENTOR w @g 0/. WMJ 57w v B ATTORNEYS E. A. TRUSSELL METHOD OF BINDING SHEET MATERIAL Dec. 26, 1939. Original Filed Aug. 25, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR ATTORNEYS Patented Dec. 26, 1939 UNITED STATE METHOD OF BINDING SHEET MATERIAL Emory A. Trussell, Milwaukee, Wis, assignor to Trusscll Manufacturing Company, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., a corporation of New York Original application August 25, Divided and this application March 1934. Serial No. 30, 1938, Serial No. 198,841 14 Claims. - This application is a division of my prior application, Serial No. 741,360, filed August 25, 1934; U. S. Patent No. 2,116,589, issued May 10, 1938. This invention relates to improved methods of binding sheet material. Although of general application, for use in the binding of memorandum books, blank books, advertising pamphlets, printed books, and note books of the type commonly used by stenographers. It is an object of the invention to provide a simple and inexpensive but practical method of binding sheets of thin material including, if desired, surface sheets of heavier material to serve as covers, by the application of a metal binder, preferably of wire, portions of which may be bent to forms such as may be readily thrust through perforations in the margins of the sheets, previously provided to receive them, and then further bent to forms such that the sheets may not be accidentally separated from the binder. In the accompanying drawings illustrating wire binders and apparatus which may be used in practicing methods embodying the foregoing invention and bound sheet constructions which may be produced by the use of such methods: Figure 1 is a plan view of a piece of wire from which a binding element for a book may be made. Fig. 2 is a like view of the wire after it has been bent to a form such as to provide a series of reversely disposed loops all lying in the same plane. Fig. 3 is an end view of the bent wire illustrated by Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is an end view of the bent wire illustrated by Figs. 2 and 3 after the portions of wire adjacent each set of loops have been bent to substantially circular form, so that the center line of the wire may lie in an imaginary surface of trough-like form. Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the wire illustrated by Fig. 4. v Fig. 6 is a plan view of a fragmentary portion of a sheet of paper or other thin material, any reasonable number of which may be bound together by the wire illustrated by Figs. 4 and 5. Fig. '7 is a plan view of a fragmentary portion of a sheet of heavier material, two of which may be used as covers. for a plurality of sheets like the one illustrated by Fig. 6. Fig. 8 is a transverse cross-sectional view through a pad of sheets and pair of covers to be bound, the partly formed binding wire, and fragmentary portions of some of the tools which'may be used to facilitate the insertion of the binding wire. Fig. 9 is a plan view of portions of the tools and partly formed book illustrated by Fig. 8. Fig. 10 is a fragmentary, transverse, sectional the invention is particularly adapted view of the sheets, covers and binding wire after the bending of the wire has been completed and the book has been removed from the tools. Fig. 11 is a perspective view of a fragmentary portion of a book comprising sheets, covers and a completed binding wire. Fig. 12 is a plan view of a piece of wire bent to a form adapted to serve as a blank from which a modified form of binding wire may be constructed. Fig. 13 is a perspective view of the wire blank illustrated by Fig. 12 after it has been bent to a form such that the center line of the wire may lie in an imaginary surface oftrough-like form. Fig. 14 is a plan view of a fragmentary portion of a sheet of paper or other appropriate material adapted to serve as a leaf of a book to be bound by a wire-attaching element of a form which may be made from the blank shown in Fig. 12. Fig. 15 is a like view of a fragmentary portion of a sheet of heavier material, a pair of which may be used as covers for a book having sheets like the one illustrated by Fig. 14. Fig. 16 is a perspective view of a fragmentary portion of a completed book having a binding wire made from the blank illustrated by Fig. 12. Fig. 17 is a plan view of a wire blank from which a second modified form-of binding wire embodying the invention may be constructed. Fig. 18 is a perspective view of the wire illustrated by Fig. 17 after it has been bent to a form such that the center line of the wire will lie in an imaginary surface of trough-like form. Fig. 19 is a plan view of a fragmentary portion of a sheet of paper any reasonable number of which might be bound by a form of binding wire to be constructed from the blank illustrated by Fig. 1'7. Fig. 20 is a fragmentary view of a sheet of heavier material, a pair of which may be used for covers of sheets to be bound by the binding wire made from the blank illustrated by Fig. 1'7. Fig. 21 is a perspective view of a fragmentary portion of a finished book having a binding wire of the form to be made from the blank illustrated by Fig. '17. Fig. 22 is a transverse cross-sectional view of parts of a pad of sheets and covers, a partly formed binding wire, and parts of the dies used to complete the bending of the binding wire, the longitudinal axes of the dies being disposed slightly out of alignment with respect to each other as indicated by broken lines. Fig. 23 is a like view of the parts illustrated by Fig. 22, the dies being indicated in positions assumed after they have partly completed the bending of the wire. Fig. 24 is a like view of the parts illustrated by Figs. 22 and 23 after the bending has been completed and prior to the release of the binding wire. I Fig. 25 is a like view of the parts of the book illustrated by Figs. 22, 23 and 24 after being re-' leased from the wire-bending dies, the reversely disposed coils of the binding wire being represented between elements of' a pair of aligning dies by which the sheet-attaching loops of the binding wire may be bent to a substantially circular form. Fig. 26 is a perspective view of an intermediate form to which the blank illustrated by Fig. 17 may be bent and from which a binding wire like that illustrated by Fig. 21 may be constructed in accordance with a method of bending somewhat different from the methods thus far described. Fig. 27 is a transverse cross-sectional view of a pad of sheets and a pair of covers, the binding Wire being represented in the'position which it assumes after the loops of relatively closed formation have been thrust through the marginal perforations in the sheets. Fig. 28 is a like view of the parts illustrated by Fig. 27, the binding wire having been rotated through an angle of approximately 180 degrees, and a pair of wire-bending dies being indicated by means of which the bending of the binding wire may be completed. Fig. 29 is a like view of the parts illustrated by Fig. 28, the dies having been moved to positions such as to complete the bending of the wire. Fig. 30 is a view, partly in plan and partly in plan and partly in horizontal cross section, of the parts illustrated by Fig.28. Fig. 31 is a plan vie of the parts illustrated by Fig. 29. Fig. 32 is a transverse sectional view of parts of a pad of sheets and a pair of covers having the binding wire embodying the invention engaged therewith in a manner such that the portions of the wire which connect the sheetattaching rings may be closed between one of the covers and the adjacent sheet. Fig. 33 is a like view of the parts illustrated by Fig. 32, the two covers and the sheets being indicated in the positions in which they may be assembled to facilitate the insertion of the binding wire, after which one of the covers may be turned about the wire to the position indicated in Fig. 32. A wire-bound book of the form illustrated by Fig. 11 may be constructed in various ways, one of which will be descr'bed with the aid of Figs. 1 to 10, inclusive, of the drawings. Fig. l represents a piece of relatively soft wire 50, which may first be bent tothe form of the blank illustrated by Figs. 2 and 3 comprising reversely disposed loops l, 52 and intervening connecting portions 53 all lying in the same plane,"as i1lus-. These loops may be bent to a trated by Fig. 3. form such that the center lines of all portions of the wire will lie in an imaginary surface of trough-like form as indicated in end view by Fig. 4. The form of the partly completed binding wire, as illustrated by Fig. 4, may comprise substantially circular portions 54, 55 and intervening straight portions 56. A short length of completed binding wire of the form illustrated by Fig. 4 is shown in perspective in Fig. 5 in readiness to be made use of in binding a number book, memorandum book, I of sheets of a blank v circular, printed publication, or similar leaved construction. In Fig. 6 is illustrated a fragment of one of a number of sheets 51 of paper or other appropriate material, which may be bound together by the binding wire embodying the invention. Such sheets may be perforated along the edges to be bound in such manner as to provide for suitable interengagement with the binding wire. As indicated in Fig. 6, the sheet may be provided with perforations 58 spaced in accordance with the spacing of the sheet-attaching loops or rings of the binding wire hereinafter to be described, and in order that the attaching loops may be thrust through the sheets in the form of connected pairs, the sheets 51 may be slitted between adjacent perforations as at 59. It will be apparent, however, that any form of perforation of a shape and dimensions such as to accommodate a connected pair of sheet-attaching loops or rings may be substituted for the specific type of perforation illustrated by Fig. 6. In Fig. 7 is illustrated a fragment of a sheet 6ll of material appropriate for use as a protector or cover for a book or pad built up of the sheets 51. The cover sheet 60 is likewise indicated as being provided with perforations 6| of suitable form and dimensions to permit connected pairs of loops or rings of a binding wire to be thrust through them. In building up a book or pad, any desired number of sheets 51 may be superimposed one upon another, and, preferably, enclosed between a pair of sheets 66, after which the loops of the binding wire may be thrust through the registering perforations 58, 59, 6| of the sheets and covers and bent by the use of suitable dies to forms such as to hold the parts of the book in their assembled relation as illustrated by Figs. and 11. In Figs. 8 and 9 are illustrated parts of certain tools which may be made use of as an aid in carrying out one method of inserting the loops of the binding wire in the perforations of the sheets and covers of the book and of bending them to their completed forms. In Fig. 8, 62 represents a table or support having a flat top 63 on which the book or pad 64 comprising sheets 51 and covers 60 may be supported, and, While thus supported, they may be pressed edgewise between a pair of sheet-shifting tools 65, 66, the former having a concave sheetengaging surface 6'! sheet-engaging surface 68. By gently pressing the two sheet-shifting elements 65, 66 towards each other, the sheets and covers will be adjusted as indicated in Fig. 8 to positions such that the perforated portions will becurved to an extent dependent upon the curvature of the surfaces 61, 68 of the sheet-shifting tools. This curvature may be made to conform substantially with the curvature of the portions 54, 55 of the partly formed binding wire, so that one set of the reversely disposed loops, that is, either the loops 5| or loops 52, may be readily thrust into the perforations, after which they may be closed by the use of suitable dies to the positions indicated in Fig. 10. To facilitate the insertion of the partly formed binding wire in the perforations inthe pad of sheets to be bound, an opening may be provided in the support, as at 69, and the tool 66 may be slotted, as at 10 (see Figs. 8 and 9). It will be apparent that wire affords a very simple and easily constructed and assembled, yet highly satisfactory, means whereby the sheets and covers of the book, if covers are used, may be attached together, after which either cover and any number of the the finished binding and the latter a convex of the binding wire may be freely moved around the loops through approximately360 degrees so that either page ofany leaf of the sheets book may be a surface page. In Fig. 12 is disclosed a form of blank from which amodifled form of binding wire embodying the invention may be constructed. The blank illustrated by Fig. 12 differs from the one illustrated by Fig. 2 in that the loops 52a are closed upon each other and the loops Sia are of a more open construction so that the intervening conlustrated by Fig. 12, the perforations 58a in sheets S'Ia (Fig. 14) and the perforations Bia in cover through perforations sheets 60a (Fig. 15) may be relatively small as compared with the spaces between said perforations, and, if desired, may be simple circular holes as indicated, each hole being merely of a diameter equal to two diameters of the wire plus a reasonable clearance space. When using a blank of the form of the one illustrated by Fig. 12, the wires 53a may be first. bent to the forms illustrated by Fig. 13 so that their center lines lie in an imaginary surface of trough-like'form, after which the loops 52a may be thrust into the perforations 6ia of the covers and S80. of the sheets, and the sheet-attaching loops formed by the wires 53a bent by suitable dies to the form of substantially closed sheet-attaching loops or rings, as clearly indicated in Fig. 16. r In Fig. 17 is illustrated a form of blank differing from those illustrated by Figs. 2 and 12 in that the loops 5% are of a relatively closed configuration as compared with the loops Sib, the forms of the loops being such that the intervening wires 53b are all spaced from each other in pairs, none of the wires being in contact, but the wires of each pair being closer to each other than to the wires of adjacent pairs. The blank illustrated by Fig. 1'7 may be bent to the form illustrated by Fig. 18 in which the centers of the wires .53!) between the loops 52b and Slb lie in an imaginary surface of troughlike form, after which the loops 52b and portions of the connecting wires 53b may be thrust into perforations SBbin sheets 51?) (Fig. 19) to be connected by the binding wire, and, if desired, Bib in cover sheets 601) (Fig. 20), and then bent by suitable wire-rolling dies until the sheet-attaching loops formed from the wires 53b assume the forms of substantially closed rings, as indicated in Fig. 21. When a binding wire of the form embodying the invention as disclosed by Figs. 1'7 to 21 is used, the perforations 58b and Gib, as shown in Figs 19 and 20, need be only of a size sufficient to accommodate a pair of the closely spaced wires 53b, so that the spaces between a pair of perforations may be greater than the lengthsof the perfora: tions. I In Figs. 22 to 25, inclusive; are disclosed portions of tools which may be used as an aid. in completing the bending of a binding wire embodying the invention. In accordance with one method which may be practiced with the aid of such tools the wire-rolling dies 12c, 130 are disposed with their axes slightly displaced one with respect to the other as indicated by broken lines in Fig. 22. When the dies are moved towards each other, as indicated in Figs- 23 and 24, to roll the portions of wire 530 to their substantially closed,'ring-like forms adapted to serve as sheetattaching loops, the reversely disposed loops Sic, 52c, will vbe caused to overlap in a slightly offset relation, as indicated in Fig. 24, so that the loops of one set will not be crowded into the spaces between the loops of the other set and cause .portions' of the binding wire to be distorted. The relative movement of the dies 12c and 130 is continued until the looped portions Sic, 520 have been caused to overlap to an extent only such that, when the dies are withdrawn and the bent portions of the wire relieved from strain, they will spring back to an extent such that the loops Sic, 520 will assume the positions illustrated by Fig. 25, after which, if desired, the portions of the wire adjacent the loops Sic, 52c may be bent between a pair of aligning dies 14, 15, which may be moved towardeach other and thereby force the looped portions 520 into registration with, and even slightly beyond,. the looped'portions Sic to an extent such that when released from the dies the sheet-attaching loops formed by the portions 530 of the wire will be of substantially circular form, asindicated in Fig. 10. It willbe apparent that the methods of installing and completing' the bending of the binding wires which have been described with the aid of Figs. 8, 9 and 22 to 25 of the drawings are equally adapted to be used in making binding wires of any of the three forms illustrated by Figs. 11, 16 and 21. With the aid of Figs. 26 to 31, inclusive, another method in accordance with which a binding wire embodying the invention may be completed will be described. When this method is employed, a blank, which might, for example, be one like the blank illustrated by Fig. 17, may first be bent by suitable tools to the form illustrated by Fig. 26 comprising reversely disposed loops Sid, 52d and intervening wire portions 53d, parts Sld of the wire portions 5321 being straight. as indicated, so as to lie in one and the same plane. It will be apparent that a similar partly completed binding wire might likewise be made from a blank of the form illustrated by Fig. 2 or from a blank of the form illustratedby Fig. 12. The loops Sid and adjacent portions 54d of the binding wire may be thrust through perforations 58b, Bib of sheets of paper 512) and cover plates 6% like those illustrated by Figs. 19 and 20, as indicated in Fig. 2'7, after which the partly formed binding wire may be rotated to the position with respect to the sheets and covers indicated in Fig. 28. The portions 54d of the binding wire may then be bent to the same substantially circular form as the portions 53d by pressing them between a die 16 and a series of dies 'I'I as indicated in Figs. 28 to 31, inclusive. The dies 11 may be supported in an offset relation at the ends of a series of supporting bars 18 by which they may be secured to a .common operating bar 19 by screws or other appropriate fastening means, as clearly shown in Fig. 30. The bars 18 may, as indicated, be passed through slots provided therefor in the die 16, so that the dies ll may be moved towards the die 16 by forcibly drawing the operating bar 19 rearwardly or away from the body portion of the die 16 in order that the parts will assume the relative positions shown in Figs. 29 and 31. When using the dies l6, TI, to bend the parts 54d of the binding wire to circular form, the operating bar 19 will first be moved towards the body portion of the die 16 so as to separate the dies I6 and 11. The book and partly formed binding wire will then b face portion of the die 16 as when released from the dies moved to a position relative to the bending tools illustrated by Figs. 28 and 30, after which relative movements may be imparted to the book and tools such as to cause the dies 11 to enter the partly formed sheet-attaching rings of the binding wire. The common operating bar 19 may then be moved away from the rear body portion of the die 16, thus causing the dies 11 to bend the parts 54d of the binding wire into the concave indicated in Figs. 29 and 31. If desired, the forms of the dies 16, 11 may be such .as to slightly overbend the portions of wire 54d, as indicated by Fig. 29, in order that the attaching loops will be of the true circular form illustrated by Fig. 10. The release of the finished binding wire from the dies is efiected by moving the operating bar 19 towards the rear portion of the die 16and then imparting a' relative lateral movement to the book and tools in order to remove the dies 11 from the attaching loops. The forms of blanks and partly completed sheet binders illustrated by Figs. 2, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 17, 18, 22, 26, 27 and 28 are, to a certain extent, intended to be diagrammatic only. The drawings and descriptions of these wire structures are intended to indicate that parts of the Wire may first be bent to the approximate curvature of the sheet-attaching rings of a finished binder and the bending completed after the blank or partly finished binder has been assembled with sheets to be'bound. The curvature and relative proportions of the parts of the blanks to be bent before assembling the blanks with the sheets and the relative portions of the unbent or incompletely bent portions relied upon to maintain the ends of the sheet-attaching loops or rings spaced sufiiciently to permit the sheets to be assembled with the binder may be varied to suit conditions to be met in practice. so great a portion of the wires from which the sheet-attaching rings or loops are to be formed be left straight or substantially straight as is indicated in the drawings. All that is necessary is that the form of the partly completed rings be such as to permit the sheets to be inserted between the spaced ends of the rings. By bending a relatively large portion of each ring to the substantial curvature of the intended completed ring before assembling the binder with the sheets to be bound and by using appropriate dies to comfplete the bending of the rings, binders having sheet-attaching rings or loops of-substanti'ally circular form may be readily formed. In each of the various forms of blanks which have been illustrated for use the two wires which pass through the same perstations in the sheets assembled with the binder are united by a rounded portion such as to cause the connected ends of the wires to converge, and that the opposite ends of the same wires are connected with adjacent ends of wires of adjacent pairs by uniting portions of a curved form such as. to cause the parts of the wires approaching the connections between Wires of different pairs to diverge or flare away from each other so that when the pairs of wires which form the sheetattaching loops or rings are bent to their closed positions the converging end portion of the pair of mutually united wires which serve as a double sheet-attaching ring or loop may be caused to extend into the space between the diverging or outwardly flared portions of the opposite ends It is not essential that. in making sheet binders embodying the invention it will be ob-' served that one pair of corresponding ends of ring-like, sheet-attaching arranged in an overlapping, zigzag relation such as to prevent the separation of sheets from the binder along the zone of adjacent overlapping ring ends. 7 If a pad of sheets and cover elements 51, 60 are assembled with a binding wire 52, 53 in the manner hereinbefore described, the looped portions 5|, 52 will be exposed when the cover elements 60 are in contact with the outermost sheets 51 of the pad. If desired, the parts may be assembled with the two cover elements 60 in contact with each other at one surface of the pad of sheets 51, as indicated in Fig. 33, in which case the looped portions 5|, 52 will be exposed after the binding wire has been completed. One of the cover elements 60 may be then turned about the portions 53 of the binding wire through Although the binding wire has been herein disclosed as one extending substantially from one end to the other of the margins of the sheets to be bound, it will be apparent that its length and the number of loops to be used need be only such as is necessary to'adapt it to satisfactorily serve the intended purpose, and that, if desired, binding wires of a given size and weight might be made up in standard lengths including a plurality of pairs of sheet-attaching loops, and any number of such, binding wires used in an end-toend relation along the margins of the sheets to be attached dependent upon the sizes of the sheets. It is not at all essential that a single wire comprising a single series of pairs of loops extend the entire length of the sheets. It is not intendedthat the invention be limited to the specific methods of binding sheets herein disclosed for purposes of illustration, but that it should include tions thereof within the scope of the appended claims. What is claimed is: 1. The method of binding sheets of material into book form, which consists in perforating the sheets at spaced intervals along the edges to be bound; bending a piece of wire into a form comprising a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel connecting portions, the said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end portions disposed respectively along a pair of parallehstraight lines, and having material parts of their intervening, connecting portions bent about axes parallel to the lines lying along the loop-ends to a curvature approximating that of a closed circular, 7 element .of a binder to be formed, leaving other material parts of the intervening portions of forms 'necessitatin further bending to close and thus complete such elements; thrusting alternate loops of the partly formed binder through the perforations in the sheets; and completing the binder by a further bending of portions requiring such treatment to give all parts of the binder construction between the ends of the alternate loops the degree of ourvature needed to close and complete the approximately circular ring-like attaching elements. 2. The method of binding sheets of material into book form, which consists in perforating the sheets at spaced intervals along the edges to be bound; bending a piece of wire into a form comprising a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel connecting portions, the said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end portions disposed respectively along a pair of parallel, straight lines, and having material parts of their intervening, connecting portions adjacent each of the outwardly directed loop-ends bent about axes parallel to the lines lying along said ends to a curvature approximating that of a closed, circular, ring-like, sheet-attaching element of a binder to be formed, leaving intermediate parts of material extent necessitating further bending to close and thus complete such elements; thrusting alternate loops of the partly formed binder through the perforations in the sheets; and completing the binder by a further bending of portions requiring such treatment to give all parts of the binder construction between the ends, of the alternate loops the degree of curvature needed to close and complete the approximately circular ring-like attaching elements. 3. The method of binding sheets of material into book form, which consists in perforating the sheets at spaced intervals along the edges to be bound; bending a piece of wire into a form comprising a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel connecting portions, the said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end portions disposed respectively along a pair of parallel, straight lines, and having, material parts of their intervening, connecting portions, adjacent one of the two sets of alternate, outwardly directed loop-ends, bent about axes parallel to the lines lying along said ends to a curvature approximating that of a closed, circular ring-like sheet-attaching element of a binder to be formed, leaving other material parts of the intervening, connecting portions, adjacent the other of the two sets of alternate, outwardly directed loop-ends, necessitating further bending to close and thus complete such elements; thrusting alternate loops of the partly formed binder through the perforations in the sheets; and completing the binder by a further bending of portions requiring such treatment to give all parts of the binder construction between the ends of the alternate loops the degree of curvature needed to close and complete the approximately circular ring-like attaching elements. 4. The method of binding sheets .of material into book form, which consists in perforating the sheets at spaced intervals along the edges to be bound; bending a piece of wire into a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel, straight connecting portions, the ' said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end portions disposed respectively along a pair of parallel, straight lines; bending parts of the intervening, connecting portions to forms including elements of material extent having a degree of curvature about axes parallel with the axes of the lines which bound the loop-ends substantially conforming with that which would be appropriate for a closed, ring-like, sheet-attaching element of a binder to be formed, and other portions of material extent requiring further bending to form the closed, sheet-attaching elements of a finished binder; thrusting alternate loops of the partly formed binder through the perforations in the sheets; and completing the binder by a final bending of parts of the intervening, connecting portions of the loops to give all parts of the binder construction between the ends of the alternate loops the degree of curvature needed to close and complete the ring-like attaching elements. 5. The method of binding sheets of material into book form, which consists in perforating the sheets at spaced intervals along the edges to be bound; bending'a piece of wire into a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel, straight connecting portions, the said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end portions disposed respectively along a pair of parallel, straight lines; bending parts of the intervening, connecting portions to forms including elements of material extent, adjacent each of the outwardly directed loop-ends, having a degree of curvature, about axes parallel with the lines which bound the loop-ends, substantial ly conforming with that which would be appropriate for a closed, ring-like, sheet-attaching element of a binder to be formed and intervening portions of material extent requiring further bending to form the closed, sheet-attaching elements of a finished binder; thrusting alternate loops of the partly formed binder through the perforations in the sheets; and completing the binder by a final bending of parts of the intervening, connecting portions of the loops to give all parts of the binder construction between the ends of the alternate loops the degree of curvature needed to close and complete the ring-like attaching elements. 6. The method of binding sheets of material into book form, which consists in perforating the sheets at spaced intervals along the edges to be bound; bending a piece of wire into a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel, straight connecting portions, the said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end portions disposed respectively along a pair of parallel, straight lines; bending parts of the intervening, connecting portions to forms including elements of material extent, adjacent one of the two sets of alternate, outwardly directed loop-ends, having a degree of curvature, about axes parallel with the lines which bound the loopends, substantially conforming with that which would be appropriate for a closed, ring-like, sheetattaching element of a binder to be formed and other portions of material extent adjacent the other of the two sets of alternate, outwardly directed loop-ends requiring further bending to form the closed, sheet-attaching elements of a finished binder; thrusting alternate loops of the partly formed binder through the perforations in the sheets; and completing the binder by a final bending of parts of the intervening, connecting portions of the loops to give all parts of the binder construction between the ends of the alternate loops the degree of curvature needed to close and complete the ring-like attaching elements. 7. The method of forming a binder for sheet material, which consists in bending a piece of wire into a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel, straight connecting portions, the said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end portions disposed respectively along a pair of parallel straight lines; ' binder. 8. The method of forming a binder for sheet material, which consists in bending a piece of wire into a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel, straight connecting portions, the said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end spectively along a pair of parallel straight lines; and then bending parts of the intervening, con necting portions to forms including elements of material extent, adjacent each of the outwardly directed loop-ends, having a degree of curvature, - about axes parallel with the lines which bound the loop-ends, substantially conforming with that which would be appropriate for a closed, circular, ring-like, sheet-attaching element of a binder to be formed and intervening portions of material extent requiring further bending to form the closed, sheet-attaching elements of a finished binder. 9. The method of forming a binder for sheet material, which consists wire into a plurality of reversely disposed loops united by intervening, parallel, straight connecting portions, the said loops having their two sets of oppositely directed end portions disposed respectively along a pair of parallel straight lines; and then bending parts of the intervening, connecting portions to forms including elements of material extent, adjacent one of the two sets of alternate, outwardly directed loop-ends, having a degree of curvature, about axes parallel with the lines which bound the loop-ends, substantially conforming withzthat which would be appropriate for a closed, circular, ring-like, sheetattaching element of a binderto be formed and other portions of material extent adjacent the form the closed, sheet-attaching other of the two sets of alternate, outwardly directed loop-ends requiring further bending to elements of a finished binder. 10. The method defined by claim 2, in accordance with which the bending of the parts of the wire between the loops, after insertion in the perforations in the sheets to be bound, is efiected by a pair of wire-rolling dies slightly displaced one with respect to the other so as to spiral the sheet-attaching elements sufiiciently to permit the bending to be continued until the ends of the oppositely disposed loops have been caused to, abnormally overlap one another, whereby on release from the dies the resiliency of the strained wire elements will cause the ends of the loops to spring back into positions of substantial alignment. 11. The method defined by claim 2, in accordance with which the bending of the parts of the, wire between the loops, after insertion in the perforations in the sheets to be bound, is effected by a pair of wire-rolling dies slightly displaced one with respect to the other so as to spiral the sheet-attaching elements sufi'iciently to permit the bending to be continued until the ends of the perforations in the sheets portions disposed re-' in bending a piece of oppositely disposed loops have been caused to abnormally overlap one another, whereby on release from the dies the resiliency of the strained wire elements will cause the ends of the loops to spring back into positions of substantial alignment, the substantially aligned end portions of the sheet-attaching elements being then brought into more perfect alignment by forcing them past each other radially between dies to an extent such that when relieved from the bending strain they will spring back into the desired positions of alignment. 12. The method defined by claim 5, in accordance with which the bending of the parts of the wire between the loops, after insertion in the to be bound, is effected by a pair of wire-rolling dies slightly displaced one with respect to the other so as to spiral the sheet-attaching elements sufficiently to permit the bending to be continued until the ends of the oppositely disposed loops have been caused to abnormally overlap one another, whereby on release from the dies the resiliency of the strained wire elements will cause the ends of the loops to spring back into positions of substantial alignment. 13. The method defined by claim 5, in accord.- ance with which the bending of the parts of the wire between the loops, after insertion in the perforations in the sheets to be bound, is effected by a pair of wire-rolling dies slightly displaced onewith respect to the other'so as to spiral the sheet-attaching elements sufliciently to permit the bending to be continueduntil the ends of the oppositely disposed loops have been caused to abnormally overlap one another, whereby on release from the dies the resiliency of the strained wire elements will cause the ends of the loops to spring back into positions ment, the substantially aligned end portions of the sheet-attaching elements being then brought of substantial aligninto moreperfect alignment by forcing them past ture approximately equal to that of the end portions of the sheet-attaching elements, the edges of the sheets to be bound being brought into contact with the tool having a convex surface and their opposite contact with the tool having a concave surface, whereby the perforated portions of the sheetswill be relatively displaced and thereby disposed in a curved relationship corresponding to the curvature of the end portions of the sheet-attaching elements; thrusting the curved end portions of the attaching elements through the curved portions of the sheets; and closing the attaching elements of the binder by the necessary further EMORY A. TRUSSELL. pair of sheet position-ad-' respectively, concave and convex contacting surfaces of a degree of curvaedges being brought into

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